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Following a in 2001 by the French Ministry of Research aiming at the implementation of Observatories for Environmental  Research, LISAH, the HSM JRU (Montpellier), INAT and  INGREF ( both in Tunis) have implemented an observatory on their research themes, i.e. the Mediterranean Observatory for Rural Environment and Water (OMERE), based on two sites that had been subjected  to hydrological observations and monitoring for about ten years: Roujan (Hérault, France) and Kamech (Cap Bon- Tunisia).

The OMERE observatory falls within the context of the studies of overall changes affecting hydrosystems and focuses on Mediterranean agrosystems.
This is a hydrological context intermediate between arid and temperate environments, subjected to a wide range of hydrological processes, from intense drought spells to extreme swelling of rivers and floods.  Besides, this is a social and human context with generalized, millenary-old human activities, and presently experiencing tremendous changes  (intensification of farm production in appropriatefavourable locations, land abandonment in non-intensifiable areas, increase in water captationswithdrawals,  hydro-agricultural or environment conservation developments ) linked in particular to a rapid increase in population density; These are also latitudes where the different scenarios developed by IGCC on climatic change forecast  the most severe pluviometry changes: scarcity ofdecrease of winter rains occurrence along with a higher occurrence of heavy rainfall events, increased occurrence of  stormy  rainfalls and extreme rains......

The OER OMERE is based on the acquisition of climatic, hydrological, and sediment and solutes fluxes  time series on two Mediterranean hydrosystemscatchments, similar in terms of climate forcing, but different in terms of soils, hydro-agricultural developments and cultural practices and subjected to different evolution dynamics:

The observatory was officially approved in 2003 (equipment   standardization), again at the end of 2005 and in 2010 for an additional 4 years.